News from Around the Globe

Research is constant.  Every day we are learning more about how to fight cancer in all of its forms.  Here are the latest news articles from some of the leading cancer organizations.  Check back often to stay up to date.

news from around the world

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Stronger Than Cancer has shared these news articles for information purposes only.  It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

 

Is White Rice a Yellow-Light or Red-Light Food?

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Arsenic is not just considered to be a carcinogen; it’s also designated as a “nonthreshold carcinogen, meaning that any dose, no matter how small, carries […]

Scientists develop approach for exploiting cancer’s dietary demands

1 week 1 day ago

Press release

Scientists discover a way to target cancer’s nutritional needs, which could lead to a new way to treat the disease, according to a study* published in Nature Communications today (Thursday). 

Numerous studies in mice and cancer cells have shown cancer growth can be reduced in response to diets lacking serine. But results have been variable because some cancer cells are efficient in making their own serine, particularly those with a KRAS mutation which is found in several hard-to-treat cancers**. 

The scientists in today’s study, funded by Cancer Research UK, found that restricting the amount of serine in the diet of mice when given alongside a drug that prevents the body from making it, reduced tumour cell growth in several different models of bowel cancer.   

If future work shows the limitation of serine in healthy people is possible, then it could lead to a new precision medicine approach to exploiting cancers’ dietary weaknesses as cancer treatments. 

Serine is an amino acid that is found in many foods, but can also be made by the body, and is one of the building blocks for making proteins. Cancer cells have been found to be more dependent on serine than their healthy counterparts due to their accelerated growth, suggesting a weakness that might be exploited for cancer therapy.  

Scientists based at the Francis Crick Institute, and led by Professor Karen Vousden, Cancer Research UK’s chief scientist, wanted to see if restricting serine in the diet in combination with a drug called PH755***, which prevents cancer cells from making the amino acid, would be more effective at blocking cancer cell growth.  

The researchers were able to inhibit bowel cancer cell growth, both in cell cultures in the lab as well as in organoids – 3D models of tumours which mimic some of the complexity of organs, using this dual approach. 

Critically, in bowel cancer xenografts, where human bowel cancer cells are studied in a mouse model of the disease, they found that the combined approach significantly reduced the tumours’ growth compared to either approach alone. 

Encouragingly, PH755 had few side effects in the animal models. 

Professor Karen Vousden said: “The idea of being able to develop dietary interventions, based on the understanding of mechanisms behind how changes in nutrients affect tumours, has the potential to unlock a powerful way to treat cancer.” 

“In the future this could provide a basis for developing a precision medicine approach to diet as a cancer therapy, much as we do with targeted drugs. Personalising each individual's diet to target the nutritional demands of cancer could, alongside other therapies, give people the best opportunity to respond to treatment.” 

The researchers hope that this two-pronged approach could work in a range of cancers, including those with KRAS mutations, and could provide an additional way to tackle the disease alongside current treatments, such as chemotherapy. 

Michelle Mitchell, chief executive at Cancer Research UK, said: “Understanding the fundamental biology of cancer through studies like this is vital for revealing the true complexity of the disease, and can shed light on new treatment avenues. This research has given us a tantalising glimpse into how we can turn cancer’s dietary dependencies against it, and we look forward to seeing if the approach works in people.” 

Martin Ledwick, Cancer Research UK’s head information nurse, said: “While it’s encouraging to see the potential of targeting cancer’s nutritional demands to help treat the disease, it’s important to remember that this is early research in mice and cells, and people with cancer shouldn’t change their diets in light of this. We need to see if this work translates into cancer in humans before testing to see if diet changes are helpful.” 

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How Much Arsenic in Rice Is Too Much?

1 week 2 days ago
What are some strategies to reduce arsenic exposure from rice? Those who are exposed to the most arsenic in rice are those who are exposed […]

Ultraviolet radiation causes rare type of eye cancer

1 week 3 days ago

Press release

Ultraviolet radiation can cause a rare type of eye cancer, conjunctival melanoma, according to research funded by Cancer Research UK and others* and published** in Nature Communications today (Monday). 

UV radiation is known to be the key environmental cause of melanoma of the skin, but its role in the development of rarer forms of melanoma in the eye was not known. 

This new study has revealed strikingly similar genetic changes in conjunctival melanoma to that of cutaneous (skin) melanoma caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. 

The team behind today’s findings suggest that treatments used for skin melanoma may also benefit people with this rare form of eye cancer. 

The researchers, led by Professor Richard Marais at the Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, used whole genome sequencing to examine the genetic makeup of melanomas that develop on the conjunctiva, the specialised membrane that covers the front of the eye, to better understand what causes this particular melanoma subtype.  

Surprisingly, the researchers found similar genetic changes in tissue samples from people with conjunctival melanoma to the genetic changes that occur in melanoma of the skin attributed to UV radiation.  

They showed that people with conjunctival melanoma driven by UV radiation have mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes, which are often seen in skin melanoma. These findings complement a similar study showing that another type of rare type of melanoma of the eye called uveal melanoma***, which develops in the iris, can also be caused by UV radiation. 

These two studies suggest that people with particular forms of eye cancer could benefit from treatments that are currently used for skin melanoma, including those which target BRAF mutations, but not yet approved for melanoma of the eye. Those drugs could, if proven to benefit these patients, be given based on the genetics of the tumour, rather than their location in the body.  

Professor Richard Marais, based at the Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute and lead author of the study, said: “Our work shows the importance of delving into the underlying biology in rare cancers, which could identify new tailored treatment avenues for people. In this case we have identified mutations in a rare type of eye cancer that could be targeted by drugs used to treat skin cancer.” 

Now, ongoing work will need to explore if BRAF-targeted therapies, or other immunotherapies used for skin melanoma, could benefit people with conjunctival melanoma. 

Professor Marais said: “By showing that UV radiation can cause conjunctival melanoma, we have added to our understanding of the known dangers of the sun for our eyes. It reminds us of the importance of protecting not just your skin, but also your eyes from UV light, be it in everyday life, or where the UV radiation is particularly high and causes the most damage such as on the beach, on a boat, on a mountain.” 

Karis Betts, Cancer Research UK’s health information manager, said: “This research adds to the picture of what we know about UV radiation leading to genetic changes that cause melanoma. Including this evidence for certain cancers of the eye it gives us even more reason for staying safe in the sun and the need for fully UV protective sunglasses****.” 

Michelle Mitchell, chief executive at Cancer Research UK, said: “Almost 20 years ago, BRAF was identified as a cancer-causing gene by a group that included Professor Marais and his Cancer Research UK-funded team. This ground-breaking discovery led to the development of drugs that block BRAF, including vemurafenib, and have been used to successfully treat many people with skin melanoma.  

“This study is a classic example of how understanding the fundamental biology of a more common cancer can be used to help people with rarer diseases that can be more difficult to study, and often have fewer treatment options.” 

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COVID-19 in people with cancer – what we know so far

2 weeks ago

Science blog

When the coronavirus outbreak began, information about the mysterious virus that caused COVID-19 was scarce.

Governments and health services alike had to act on relatively limited information about the outbreak, while experts hurried to gather data on how the virus behaves and spreads, and who was most at risk.

Throughout this period of uncertainty – which severely affected cancer services, trials and research – people were being diagnosed with, or treated for cancer and millions were living the disease. And one of the big questions was – does having cancer affect someone’s risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms?

Now, as we enter our third lockdown, we now have a clearer picture of how COVID-19 affects people with cancer. Information that will be invaluable in supporting people with cancer during future waves of COVID-19, and in helping people understand their individual risk.

COVID-19 severity in people with cancer

Because mass testing wasn’t available at the start of the pandemic, most of the evidence we have comes from studies involving people who were admitted to hospital.

It’s clear from many of these studies that patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital during the first wave were at risk of lung complications, needing intensive care and, sadly, death. A similar pattern emerged when looking at evidence involving people with cancer more specifically.

But does having cancer increase someone’s risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms? It turns out that’s a tricky question to untangle.

We know that in the general population, someone’s age, sex and underlying health conditions (such as cardiovascular disease) are linked to COVID-19 severity. Researchers have found that similar factors are also associated with COVID-19 severity in people with cancer. Because cancer is more common in older people, and people with cancer often have other health conditions as well as cancer (comorbidities), it can be difficult to unpick whether having cancer itself increase someone’s risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms, but researchers have been trying.

Results from a study of 20,000 hospital inpatients that took age, sex and some comorbidities into account found that having cancer was still associated with an increased risk of dying whilst still in hospital compared to COVID-19 patients without cancer, though the risk was lower than for people with other conditions like liver disease or dementia.

These results highlight the importance of maintaining COVID-19 protected spaces in hospitals for cancer tests, treatment and care, as we’ve blogged about before. But it may be that looking at people with cancer collectively isn’t the most helpful view, as risk may vary depending on the type of cancer someone has, the type of treatment they’re undergoing and how advanced their cancer is.

COVID-19 in different types of cancer

During the first wave of the pandemic, people with blood cancer were advised to shield as they may be at higher risk of worse outcomes from COVID-19. This is because cancers of the blood or bone marrow – such as lymphoma, leukaemia and myeloma – can lower your ability to fight infection by affecting your immune system.

Findings from the UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP), which covered 61 UK centres, suggest that people with blood cancer are overrepresented in the group of people with cancer who tested positive for the virus – meaning they may be more likely to catch COVID-19 than people with other cancer types.

And research so far suggests that people with blood cancer are more likely to have severe COVID-19 compared with those diagnosed with solid tumours. However, experts say that studies haven’t factored in other comorbidities and larger numbers are needed to analyse the risk associated with individual blood cancers.

The SOAP study has looked at the immune response to the virus in people with solid and blood cancers. The findings of this study suggest that people with blood cancers may have a more variable response with some patients struggling to clear the virus. Read more about what this could mean for COVID-19 vaccination in our COVID-19 vaccine and cancer blog

Researchers have also been looking into if people with lung cancer might be at higher risk of severe COVID-19. A few small studies have reported poor outcomes for a small cohort of patients with lung cancer and COVID-19.

But the UKCCMP study reported that the proportion of people who died after testing positive for COVID-19 was not significantly higher for patients with lung cancer than for patients with other types of cancer. One study has also reported current or past smoking as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 in people with lung cancer, but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

COVID-19 in people with cancer having different types of cancer treatment

Cancer treatment was heavily disrupted during the first wave of COVID-19, with many having their treatment delayed or altered because of the potential risks of COVID-19, or due to demands on the NHS during the pandemic.

Since the start of the pandemic, researchers have been working hard not only to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on people’s treatment, but also to understand the COVID-19 related risks of individual treatment options to help doctors and people with cancer make more informed decisions in future waves.

The biggest question mark was around surgery. Surgery was the worst hit during the first wave, mainly because of the demand for intensive care unit (ICU) beds. But there were also questions about risk, as having a big operation involving a hospital stay can make it more likely that someone will get an infection.

A large, international, ongoing study is aiming to answer questions about surgery and risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19. Findings from the COVIDSurg study have shown that having COVID-19 around the time of surgery – not just cancer surgery – leads to worse outcomes than were seen pre-pandemic, including higher rates of lung complications and higher risk of death. This initial data mainly looked at emergency surgeries, so may not be applicable to surgery in general.

COVIDSurg has begun to look at whether having had COVID-19 affects outcomes in people undergoing suspected cancer surgery. We don’t have the full findings yet, but initial results suggest that previous COVID-19 infection can increase the risk of lung complications.

The international team has also compared outcomes for patients undergoing cancer surgery in a COVID-protected environment with those having surgery in a hospital with no defined COVID-protected pathway during the height of the first wave. And the good news is it looks like COVID-protected environments do make a difference – rates of lung complications, COVID-19 infections following surgery and deaths were low in patients treated in a COVID-protected environment. This has been backed up by several other studies suggesting that it’s safe and feasible for patients to have elective cancer surgery in COVID-protected safe spaces in the UK.

Analysis of surgery for specific types of cancer is now starting to become available. International data from the first wave of the pandemic on over 2000 patients with colon or rectal cancer showed that most of these patients did not develop COVID-19 in the period after surgery. Developing COVID-19 in the period after surgery and complications after surgery were both associated with worse outcomes for patients. 

COVIDSurg data are also now available of patients with head and neck cancers, a particular concern because of the chances of spreading infection by operating in the airway. The analysis of 1,137 patients shows that the majority did not develop COVID-19 in the period after surgery and that their outcomes were similar to those normally expected from this group of patients. While this suggests that the measures introduced to make surgery safer are working, there was an association between patients and members of the surgical team testing positive. This can probably be explained by in part by high levels of infection in the community. The data also show differences in the types of head and neck cancer patients having surgery to what you would normally expect to see suggesting that some patients received alternative treatment. 

Beyond surgery, some people with cancer have also had changes made to their systemic anticancer treatment or the way in which this treatment has been provided to try to minimise their risk. For example, a switch to an oral treatment that can be taken at home rather than in hospital, or to a different drug with fewer side effects to reduce the impact on the immune system.

Radiotherapy was perhaps the least impacted type of cancer treatment and, in some cases, was even used as a treatment option for people who couldn’t have surgery or other treatments. There were some changes to radiotherapy – some patients were able to have the same overall dose of radiation in fewer visits to the hospital, reducing the risk of being infected. 

But are patients receiving systemic anticancer therapy or radiotherapy at higher risk of severe COVID-19?

While some smaller studies of people with COVID-19 and cancer have suggested that recent systemic anticancer therapy is not associated with an increased risk of dying from COVID-19, other studies have reported an increased risk. This includes the QCOVID study, a large study using data on over 6 million adults from GP and other records to develop a tool to predict COVID-19 risk based on different factors. In this study, people receiving chemotherapy were found to be at increased risk of COVID-related hospital admission and death compared to people who hadn’t had chemotherapy in the past 12 months. Similarly, people who had radiotherapy within the last 6 months were also found to be at increased risk.  

Some studies have looked at whether recent systemic anticancer therapy might increase risk specifically in patients with blood cancers. One study suggested that the risk is higher with recent treatment, but a recent review of multiple studies found no increase in risk.  

How useful is this evidence?

Initially, evidence was limited to fairly small, single centre studies. But findings from some of the larger cohorts like COVIDSurg are now becoming available, including evidence from the UK.

The speed at which some of these studies were conceived, set up and data collected – while impressive –could have resulted in missing data. And when looking at factors associated with risk of severe disease or death in subgroups of patients, analyses may be limited by small numbers.

Finally, most of the studies have only looked at hospitalised patients, which may skew the results. And because of the way testing has been carried out in hospitals, some patients may have had unidentified asymptomatic infection, potentially affecting their outcomes. Finally the way hospitals care for people with COVID-19 has changed since the first wave, so some of this evidence may not reflect what happens now.

We’ve still got a lot to learn about this relatively new virus and how it affects people with cancer, including how prior infection affects treatment outcomes, how common less severe COVID-19 is in the cancer community and whether people with cancer could have a less effective immune response to infection or a vaccine. We’re summarising the latest COVID-19 vaccine news in a separate blog post.

With large studies ongoing, we’re learning more about people’s individual risk all the time, which will be vital to help make sure that everyone gets the right treatment and care for them during the pandemic.

Lyndsy Ambler is an early diagnosis manager at Cancer Research UK

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How Risky Is the Arsenic in Rice?

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